Manipulating an athlete's cognitive training by applying specialized training modes such as error detection mode (EDM) allows teams, clubs and coaches to gain deeper insights into an athlete's performance. EDM mode trains an athlete to detect errors without any conscious effort and improve ongoing cognitive performance. Research has shown that when we are aware of an error the next correct response is up to 118ms faster and when we are not aware of an error the next correct response is up to 42ms slower.

How does it work?

When an athlete makes an error they go more slowly on the next trial but when athletes are repeatedly given performance feedback in their peripheral vision they are implicitly increasing their error detection without awareness and can still focus on the cognitive task. This error processing feedback is critical for effective behaviour change for decision making in sports performance.

For Example,

Reaction Time (RT)

  • Average Reaction Time for the Cognitive Task.

Error Detection Mode (EDM)

  • Average Reaction Time for correct responses after incorrect responses.

If you have applied EDM mode to a cognitive task you will be able to see an athlete's average reaction time (RT) for the cognitive task and EDM reaction time (EDM).


Initially, you will see a large gap between the Cognitive Tasks RT and EDM RT but as the athletes, implicit detection abilities improve this gap should reduce and you will find the EDM Reaction time will be faster than the cognitive tasks average reaction time.

Neural mechanisms involved in error processing: A comparison of errors made with and without awareness.

The ability to detect an error in one’s own performance and then to improve ongoing performance based on this error processing is critical for effective behaviour. In our event-related fMRI experiment, we show that explicit awareness of a response inhibition commission error and subsequent post-error behaviour were associated with bilateral prefrontal and parietal brain activation. Activity in the anterior cingulate region, typically associated with error detection, was equivalent for both errors subjects were aware of and those they were not aware of making. While anterior cingulate activation has repeatedly been associated with error-related processing, these results suggest that, in isolation, it is not sufficient for conscious awareness of errors or post-error adaptation of response strategies. Instead, it appears, irrespective of awareness, to detect information about stimuli/ responses that require interpretation in other brain regions for strategic implementation of post-error adjustments of behaviour.

Our findings also demonstrate two distinct patterns of post-error behaviour: explicit recognition of an error that was associated with faster post-error response times, and possibly a form of implicit detection.

What is Implicit Detection?

Implicit detection is unconscious detection that occurs with no conscious awareness.

Post-error reaction times indicated two distinct patterns of behaviour, with significantly faster RT, or speeding-up, following an Aware error (pre-error trial RT minus post-error trial RT = 118 ms, t12 = 3.54, P < 0.01) and slowing down after Unaware errors (42 ms, t12 = 2.62, P < 0.05).

To Summarise

  • Reaction Time was 118 ms faster after an error if the subject was aware of the error.

  • Reaction Time was 42 ms slower if the subject was not aware of the error.

  • Error feedback may enhance implicit detection.

Optimize Your Athlete's Error Detection with EDM Mode.

What is EDM mode?

EDM mode is designed to give athletes live response feedback. If an athlete makes a mistake, they will want to avoid another mistake, and so to make this happen they might adopt a strategy of slowing down after incorrect responses. By applying EDM mode you are giving athletes real-time feedback to optimize cognitive performance after incorrect responses.

When to use Error Detection mode

When you want to optimize cognitive performance after incorrect responses.

What benefits does EDM mode have for my athletes?

Optimizing error performance.

Where can I learn more about Error Detection?

🔗 Neural mechanisms involved in error processing: A comparison of errors made with and without awareness.

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